Canada

Autor: Kamča Nová | 14.9.2010 20:02 | 0 komentářů | Přečteno: 1625 krát

Geography 

area: 9,976,139 
population: 27,297,000 
capital city: Ottawa 
other cities: Montreal, Quebec, Calgary, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver, Halifax 
Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world after Russia and occupies the northern part of North America, borders with the USA, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean 
lakes: Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg 
rivers: the St. Lawrence River, the Winnipeg, the Saskatchewan, the Columbia, the Frazer, the Yukon, the Mackenzie 

Canada is divided into 7 regions: 
The Pacific Coast - British Columbia, Vancouver Island) 
The Cordillera - the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains (Mount Logan - 6,050) The Prairies - grain-producing region 
The Canadian Shield - Hudson Bay, region of minerals 
The Great Lakes - St. Lawrence lowlands 
The Atlantic Provinces - Appalachian Region 
The Arctic 

History 
the first people are though to have arrived to America from Siberia about 30,000 years ago 
the Vikings (Icelandic Norsemen) settled about 985 on the island of Newfoundland 
1497 - John Cabot claimed the land for the English Crown; in 1534 James Cartier planted the flag of France on a Gaspe promontory 
1763 - the Treaty of Paris - an agreement between England and France - dividing the territories; 1774 - Quebec Act -British granted French civil laws in Canada 
1791 - dividing: Upper Canada and Lower Canada, but they were united again until British rule in 1830's because of rebellions 
1st July, 1867 - Dominion of Canada ' 1st July is celebrated as "Canada Day" 
1931 - the Statue of Westminster - confirmation of autonomy 

Political system 
constitutional monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy with two official languages and two systems of law: civil law and common law 
Canada has 10 provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan) and 3 territories (Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory and Nunavut) 
in 1982 the Charter if Rights and Freedoms was entrenched in the Canadian Constitution 
the Canadian Parliament is composed of the Queen (who is represented by the Governor General), the Senate and the House of Commons 
the Senate (Upper House) has 104 members who are appointed and are divided essentially among Canada's 4 main regions of Ontario, Quebec, the West and the Atlantic Provinces the House of Commons is with its 295 members (five-year terms) the major lawmaking body 
the real executive authority is the Cabinet with Prime Minister - they are advisers of the monarch the party with the 2nd largest number of seats is called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition 

Economy 
Canada belongs to G-7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, the UK, the USA), sometimes it's extended to G-8 (plus Russia) 
rich sources of raw materials: uranium, zinc, sulphur, nickel, aluminium, gas 
agriculture: wheat 
highly developed trading country

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